Are you looking for something cool on the Internet? In the Information Age, it can seem quite tough to find something cool every day. However, that’s exactly what our site is all about. If you visit the site every day you’ll find something new each and every day of the year. We provide a wide variety of different cool things including the following. Today live-streaming video is one of the biggest trends in online videos. It can often include something cool and exciting that you’ve never seen before. Sometimes the video is something you’d likely see from the Guinness Book of World Records in terms of an amazing feat.

However, other times the video is more humorous and could include a person, place, or thing that’s really extraordinary. In that case, you’ll not only be amazed but also entertained at the same time. It’s a plus if a video can create both results so it’s something to watch out for. Not all of our posts are videos but they’re certainly one of the most interesting ones. It’s been said that “A picture is worth a thousand words.” The same ratio could also be made when comparing videos and photos.

Today’s trends are constantly changing. When we find “cool” trends it’s not just about what music or clothing is hot at the time. For example, we might include some method that’s being used in the scientific world, for example. What really makes these trends unique is that they’re ones that most people aren’t aware of. For example, it could include an interesting method that’s used to conserve an endangered animal species. People who are working in the industry are probably aware of it. However, most people likely aren’t so this would classify as a cool trend in part because most people aren’t familiar with the trend.

This usually involves a photo or video. The world of nature is quite fascinating and includes tons of “cool” things. That’s why we often add a post to the site that includes something amazing from nature. In fact, we could almost make the site dedicated to cool things that are found in nature. However, for the sake of keeping the content varied we don’t do that. Still, there are so many cool thing sin nature it’s basically unlimited. That includes animals, plants, landscapes, and other things. We’re constantly searching the Internet to find new and exciting cool things to add to the site. Our goal is to keep finding new things that are amazing.

Most of us know that certain inventions such as the printing press took place. However, we might not know the various details that were involved in the invention. Even if the inventions aren’t commonly used in day-to-day life now, it’s still interesting to know the details about how things were invented. There are many examples. One of the most interesting ones is the sous vide machine. It resulted from the inventor noticing that no matter how good he was at grilling, his steaks weren’t coming out perfectly.. This inspired him to create an invention for perfectly cooking food, in a water bath, every time (read more about the sous vide machine inventor at Sous Vide Wizard.

This usually includes unique artwork that was created. For example, it might involve different works of art made from rare items including eggshells, hair, oats, and even pollen. This is quite interesting as when we think about art we tend to focus on drawings and paintings, for example.

However, the world of art is much more varied. In fact, artists have used just about every medium you could think of to create artwork. That’s why it’s quite cool when an artist uses a medium you never considered, in order to create artwork.

Another type of natural wonder is related to weather. Sometimes there is aninterestingphenomenon that happens, such as in the sky. This indefinitely qualifies as something cool since it’s not something that people usually see in the weather. Examples include double rainbows and other events. We want to share these types of events because they’re rare and also quite cool to see in a photo. It’s definitely something interesting to check out.

Keep I mind that there are about 200 countries in the world and they all have some interesting traditions that make them unique. So it’s definitely cool to learn about the events. In fact, you might be so amazed that you’ll want to visit the place and experience the tradition yourself.

This could be a picture of just about anything, such as an island in the ocean. It can be quite tough to find a “cool” photo with the seemingly unlimited number of them available via email, social media, and other online channels.

However, we try to search the web for some of fascinating pictures. The subject can be just about anything including cities, nature, people, and so on. The only criteria are that it has to be “cool.” One criterionare that it should be interesting. However, that’s not really enough. We look for photos that have that “wow factor.” That’s what makes the images not only interesting but instead cool.

This is yet another type of cool thing that can happen around the world. It involves various events that happen in various countries or regions that are quite rare yet cool. You might or might not have heard of the traditional so it can be quite interesting to learn about them.

These are some of the types of posts we make every day to provide you with something cool every day.

This could be just about anything you could think of, including cool things in nature and other types. There’s always something in the world that you haven’t heard of, such as an interesting plant or animal. That’s why we often include a dictionary definition on our site to share some of the most amazing things in the world that you probably haven’t heard of.

Obama Protection: Just Politics as Usual

Barack Obama has indeed made history. He will be the the first black presidential candidate to have full-time protection from the secret service well over a year in advance of the 2008 Presidential Election. He may be the first candidate ever to get such protection so early. Illinois Senator Dick Durbin proposed the idea for his colleague because of some unspecified evidence shown that further security is needed. Generally, the Secret Service protects candidates within 120 days of the General Election. Obama, who has yet to show well in a debate,let alone a primary ,could be the most protected non-factor in U.S History. Currently he is still trailing front-runner Hillary Clinton in most, if not all polls. Obama’s protection, which a bi-partisan panel recommended shows how much he means to both Democrats and Republicans. Both sides have a lot riding on his safety.

For the Dem’s it further protects their ace in the hole. Obama is a top fund raiser, and a great speaker. He has mass appeal, and has a very strong grass roots support. For either party, it is important to get more young people involved in the political process. His message is one of hope and confidence. Barack Obama is a candidate the public wants to support and believe. The detail also keeps alive the potential ’08 ticket of Hillary Clinton and Obama, which would be a ticket that the country has never seen. That ticket may be the one that will energize the historically lazy Democratic base, and may be the one that will make voting the “in” thing for young voters. The marketing and motivation to support such a ticket will speak for itself, and the ticket may be one where the Democrats can finally gain some stability, and start to lay down the ground work to be the party that wins elections, not lose them. Democrats can run the Oval Office for 16 years if Clinton serves two full terms, and then a more experienced Obama is elected in 2016 and he serves two full terms. For Democrats it is an investment for their future, and it begins next year. In order to make their congress effective, they must win the Presidency. If they lose again, it will be more of the same for Democrats, having their legislation vetoed by a Republican President. An Obama assassination may bring sympathy votes to Democrats in ’08, but will prove to be a long-term disaster for the party.

Republicans want him protected for different reasons. A dead Obama will create even more negative sentiment toward the Republican Party. If he were killed, that would bring back memories of Republican mismanagement through the Bush regime from the terror war to Katrina. Such an event will wash away all of the quiet momentum that they have gained with their candidates led by favorites Rudy Giuliani and John McCain. As things stand right now, the Republicans are in a position to win again with a strong showing by either one or other candidates. Unlike the Democratic base, Republicans will show up to vote for their candidates. Despite the all-time low approval ratings for President Bush, and all of the stumbles of his administration, the GOP is a lack-luster Democratic ticket away from retaining the Oval Office- again. If their ticket faces the Clinton-Obama ticket, that will not spell doom for Republicans. For as many people who will come out and support that historic ticket, many more will come out and vote against such a ticket believing that a woman’s place is not in the Oval Office and the same for a Black man. Either race will be a close one, and each one will put one dynamic of American values in the spotlight, if not on trial. If Obama was killed without the added protection, Republicans would have got the blame just because of their history throughout this current administration even though it won’t be entirely their fault. Republicans simply cannot afford to make the history books for a fourth time carrying the distinction of having the first serious Black candidate for President killed.

Although both sides don’t want to see any loss of life on the road to Election 2008, but the reason for Obama’s protection must have some political motivation to it as well. In politics, very few things are done for the honest reason, and even though this reason seems honest and sincere, there is so much at stake for both parties next year. One party is trying to get the Oval office back in their effort to further push their agenda that is going nowhere. The other party is trying to save face, and hopefully build enough momentum for forge an upset in ’08. Both sides want to keep their plans under wraps until election time. Democrats and Republicans like their positions right now in the polls with no clear runaway favorite. It is anybody’s game right now. In the lull before the push for Presidential nominations, all candidates are raising money, inspiring hopes, and trying to win votes through talk show appearances, grass-roots efforts or the Internet. It is a well played chess game right now. Obama’s protection is just a way to maintain everyone’s position going into the first round of primaries awaiting in the not too distant future. Nobody wants this to turn into a high-stakes Poker game with somebody about to get snake eyes. Who would have thought that politics as usual would equal common sense?

Our Old Government and How Two of Their Issues Are in Direct Conflict with God

Barak Obama is now the 44th President of the United States of America. He was not my first choice as there are quite a few issues that I had with him. Contrary to what some may think race is not one of them. As an American I do believe that he should be respected as the leader of the free world. I do thing the occasional joke is ok though as with all politicians. There are people saying that he is not “My President”, but that is just nonsense. I must say I am a bit concerned about a couple things that I noticed from the start about him.

I actually got the idea for this article speaking with a friend of mine over lunch the other day. America was so discontented by the failures of President George Bush that several people could have been elected that would not stand the chance of a snowball in hell in a normal situation. The first thing that I found interesting is that he is the first president coming into office openly supporting abortion, which is the deliberate killing of a human life. I will save the debate on if it is right or wrong for another article. I am sure I will be writing it while Obama is in office. He also holds the distinction of being the only President to come into office openly advocating gay rights.

I personally think that Barak Obama is a pretty nice guy and would probably enjoy chatting with him over a cup of coffee, but I wonder what God would think of him. He does profess to be a Christian and made sure people understood that he was not a Muslim, even though his father was. So he is in favor of getting rid of don’t ask don’t tell and wants to allow abortion on demand instead of teaching responsibility for one’s actions. While reading the Bible I recall the story of Sodom and Gomorrah. God was not happy with the sins of the city and decided to lay them to ashes giving his position on the issue of homosexuality.

President Obama could always reverse course on his opinions on these issues. If he does he will feel the wrath of those groups who blindly supported him in his quest to get elected. If he stays with what he said when he was running, then God will be displeased and the wager of sin is death. I am sure he will not die, unlike the innocent babies, but it is a figure of speech.

His vice-president, Joe Biden is supposed to be Roman Catholic, yet he supports abortion and these pro-gay initiatives. How can he be Catholic if he goes against the teachings of the church? This sounds pretty hypocritical to me. If he cannot follow the laws of God, then how can people believe that he can believe in the laws of man?

Nancy Pelosi is another one in power now. She also claims to be catholic and have family values. IF she does how can she advocate the murder of innocent children and support the gay agenda of redefining marriage. It has always been between as man and woman. God made Adam and Eve not Adam and Steve, yet the three stooges and most of the kiss tail liberal government seek to push these regulations though the government of a country that is supposed to be “One Nation under God”. Does anyone else see the hypocrisy? How can you claim to be Christian and yet go against key foundations of the religion? This makes no sense to me. I hope they prey and ask for God’s forgiveness for their wicked ways.

This is a political rant and totally my opinion based on some ideas that I have thought of. By all means I do not believe that people should have to have babies when they are raped or in danger to their life. Nor do I believe that homosexuals are bad people. I pray for the souls of them every night.

Heron of Alexandria

Biographical Background

Hero(n) of Alexandria is thought to have been a Greek inventor and mathematician, either of Egyptian, Phoenician, or Greek heritage, who lived sometime between 150 BC and 250 AD. Known also as Michanikos, or, the Machine Man, Heron’s inventions were more like novelties, intended to awe crowds (Lahanas). He is also thought to have lived in Alexandria, working at the Museum that also housed the famous Library of Alexandria.

O’Conner and Robinson (1999) outline three schools of thought about when Heron lived. One postulated the date 150 BC, based primarily on the fact that he does not quote anyone later than Archimedes. Another postulated the date 250 AD by attempting to show that he lived later than Ptolemy, but before Pappus who quotes Heron in his own work. The third notes a ‘recent’ eclipse that Heron made reference to, which is now dated at March 13th, 62 AD. It also attempts to show that he was a contemporary of Columella, who makes several compelling references to Heron’s mathematics.

So, the currently accepted timeframe during which Heron is thought to have flourished is between 10 and 85 AD (Papadopoulos, 2007).

Heron’s inventions range from vending machines that released a discrete amount of liquid once a coin is inserted to much more grand devices such as automaton theaters. But, he is also renowned for advances in mathematics and hydraulics.


Most of the inventions here can be found in Papadopoulos or Lahanas:

Aeolipile – Heron invented this early version of the steam engine, though he or at least his contemporaries did not imagine the applications. Had they understood that the steam engine could do mechanical work on a massive scale, the Industrial Revolution could have happened nearly 2000 years before it did. Heron’s version was a container of fluid, that when heated, pushed steam up through two tubes into a hollow ball. The ball had two opposing arms that extended outward in an ‘L’ shape. Thus, the steam propelled the ball around in circles.

Odometer – Heron is thought to have invented a mechanical odometer, though some attribute this to Archimedes. Either way, Heron developed one that would release a discrete number of marbles per every precisely tuned turn of gears. The gears were connected to the wheels of a cart, and thus, the pusher of the cart could count the number of marbles and then the distance those marbles represented.

Vending Machine – Heron invented a vending machine that, once a coin was inserted, released a discrete amount of liquid. This was accomplished by letting the coin drop onto one side of a lever that pivoted around its center, pulling up a stop that would release the liquid. Once the coin fell off because of the angle of the lever, the stop would gently plug the hole again.

Baroulkos – This device was a gear box intended to lift weights.

Cheiroballista – This was a variation of the ballista, which is a mounted crossbow where the arms are drawn back against torsion bundles. Torsion works by twisting bundles of ropes in the same direction with an arm in the middle of the bundle. To increase the amount of torsion possible, the Cheiroballista (and other ballistas) made use of a ratchet and crank system to draw the projectile back. He also invented a stone-thrower concept similar to this, called a Palintonon.

Dioptra – This was a surveying device that made use of triangulation methods not used until the 16th-century.

Automata – Heron developed many self-driven devices and apparatus. The word automata denotes something that performs some function without outside manipulation.

For temples, Heron built several mythological scenes that would act out. Also, he designed a system that would automatically open temple doors once a fire was lit as an offering. Obviously, many of his designs were applied by temples to instill faith and awe in prospective disciples.

For the theater, Heron built completely mechanical plays that operated off binary-like systems of pulleys. The pulleys were driven by a weight sitting atop sand that poured out slowly. The self-contained plays would roll themselves on stage, lift the curtains to the diorama, and proceed through the plot of the play with figures and scenery moving automatically.


Besides his mechanical novelties, Heron both explicitly and implicitly advanced fields such as hydraulics, pneumatics, and mathematics, most often anticipating innovations hundreds and thousands of years down the road. These are some notable ideas associated with Heron, most of which can be found in Lahanas and World of Mathematics on Heron found on Bookrags.com:

Area of a triangle – Heron developed a method used even to this day for calculating the area of any given triangle, no matter the angles, based solely on the sides. The formula is:

Division of geometrical shapes – Heron wrote a few books only recovered within the last century that focused on dividing various shapes into various parts mathematically. This was of particular use to land surveyors.

Roots – Heron developed a method of finding the square root of a given number. If one has an initial approximation of the square root (it doesn’t really matter how accurate it is – just that the less accurate the approximation, the more iterations of the formula one must perform), then one may iterate Heron’s formula to the desired accuracy. Furthermore, he developed a method of finding the cube root of a given number, although it is only thanks to the work of Deslauriers and Dubac that we have the formula Heron must have used.

Harnessing power – Heron provided several methods of utilizing principles of mechanics to do work, though not on the scale of an industrial revolution. He worked on cybernetic principles in the form of self-regulating systems. One such example is the goblet he designed to maintain a certain level of fluid, replenishing or draining itself until the level was reached.


Heron of Alexandria amassed a fame in his own day, particularly for the awe he inspired in theater and temple crowds with his mechanical devices. He played an important role in developing war-machines, surveying instruments, and systems of pulleys and gears. For contemporary society, Heron’s influence in geometry has not been felt nearly as much as his formula for the area of a triangle. In fact, Heron’s formula can be extended even to impossible triangles, allowing calculations in advanced fields of physics such as relativity where other formulae fail. So, not only does Heron’s formula provide a method of finding the area of a triangle without need for angles, but it also provides promising future applications. Unfortunately, Heron’s mechanical work (especially the steam engine) went largely unused until reinvented and applied during the Industrial Revolution. Finally, Heron recorded advances in mathematics and mechanics that came before him, and thus provided a connection from one generation to the next for inventors and scholars who would otherwise have been forgotten.






Papadopoulos, Evangelos. “Heron of Alexandria (c. 10-85 AD)” in the book, Distinguished Figures in Mechanism and Machine Science. Springer Netherlands, 2007 (217-45).

The Nature of the Solar System: Redux

It goes without saying that the study of space and space exploration has become a dominant theme in the American Way of Life. Americans have always sought to explore the unknown; to forge into the New Frontier; to go where no man has gone before.

But, while many scientists have become preoccupied with learning how the universe was created, and obsessed with dark matter, which accounts for 96% of the universe, it appears that by focusing on our immediate neighborhood, the solar system itself may provide vital clues as to the workings of the universe.

The world was turned upside down when Copernicus derived his model of the solar system; that the sun was the center and that the earth and other planets orbited it and not the sun. Kepler’s theories on the elliptical orbits of the planets showed that they were not random events; that there was symmetry. And, Galileo’s work with the telescope to verify the motion of heavenly bodies, and work to explain the motion of objects did much to advance the cause of science. But, it was Newton, with his Natural Laws, who showed that there were universal constants; that objects in motion on earth adhered to the same principles as those in space; and that logic and reason could be applied to the heaven’s, displacing the notion of God.

There is no doubt that the sun is the center of the solar system. But, what of the relationships that exist; what of the fact that the sun is 500x’s (some calculate it to be as great as 700x’s) the mass (.0018) of the orbiting planets; that the sun is 1000x’s times the volume (1,304,000) and mass (333,000) of the planet Jupiter (1,321 and 317 respectively), which has a diameter (86,500 miles) 10x’s that that of the sun (865,000); and that, coincidentally, the sun has a surface temperature (9,941 F) 10,000x’s that of Jupiter (-162 F). Could it be that the planet Jupiter, which emits more electromagnetic energy than the sun itself at times, might be the counterweight which keeps the planets from being drawn into the sun? Or, what of the relationship between the distance of the earth (500x’s the speed of light, or 93,000,000) or that of Jupiter from the sun (500x’s the distance from the earth to the sun, or 1 AU).

And, there is the question of Uranus, the planet which rotates at 97 degrees upon its axis; as opposed to the sun which rotates at 7 degrees upon its axis. That the planet Uranus may prove to be a gyroscope of sorts; that keeps the planets upon a level plane, to a certain extent, while those far enough outside of its sphere of gravity freely orbit upon a higher plane; that Uranus has almost as much gravity (.90) as Venus (.91) or that of the earth (1.00).

Could it be so simple as to say that the planets are but objects in a sophisticated machine; that the sun is the center of heat light and gravity; that the plane Jupiter is the counterweight that keeps the planets in check, preventing them from being drawn into the sun; and that the planet Uranus is like a great gyroscope that keeps the planets on a level plane, an even keel, preventing them from randomly and erratically orbiting the sun like the electrons of an atom.

And, there is the question of the similar densities of the sun (.26); that of Jupiter (.24); and that of Uranus (.23), which by and large is different from all but two the smaller planets. That the distribution of the mass of the planets which adheres to a bell curve function. It could very well be that when the solar system was first created billions of year years ago, it was nothing more than a swirling cloud of gases, particles, and subatomic energy; what astronomers refer to as dark matter; that over billions of years this cloud continued to grow, like a nebulae, with more and more gases and particles accumulating with time, until which time that the cloud may have been ignited by the collision of two comets, creating the sun.

There is a great deal that we do not know about our universe; there is an equal amount that we do not know about our solar system. That these mathematical relationships and physical anomalies exist, however, indicates that relationships do exist, and that the solar system might very well be considered to be a very sophisticated piece of machinery. While earlier attempts at creating a model of the solar system have relied upon the motion of the planets, it is obvious to see that relationships do exist that might be best explained mathematically; that the sun is 500x’s the mass of the orbiting planets; that the earth is 500x’s the speed of light from the sun; that the planet Jupiter from the sun is 500x’s the distance from the sun to the earth; that the temperature of sun is 1000x’s that of Jupiter despite similar densities; that the sun has a mass 1000x’s times, or 2 x 500x’s, that of Jupiter; that Uranus should behave like that of a gyroscope; or a torpedo; that the inner planets should orbit the sun at a greater speed than those within the outer circle, despite their apparent rotations.

Thus it is possible that the solar system does adhere to logic and reason; and that like Newton’s Natural Laws for the Motion of Objects, do adhere to a set of mathematical principles, or Natural Laws.

Worms Are Subject of Outer Space Experiment

For nearly six months, a legion of worms has been traveling through space. While it may sound more like science fiction, it is in fact true. Actually, over 100,000 have been aboard the International Space Station. Scientists at Simon Fraser University plan on studying them up return in order to see the effects of radiation in outer space. The study is of particular importance, considering that NASA has intentions of sending a crew of astronauts to Mars within the next few decades.

Bob Johnsen, lead scientist in the study, claims that he is very excited about the worms’ return. In fact, he will be traveling to Cape Canaveral to collect the worms from the Space Shuttle Discovery. But he isn’t the only person excited about their return. A sixth grade science class from Ontario, Canada has also been keeping up with the worms. They have been examining pictures of the worms sent from outer space and intend on actually viewing the worms after they arrive back on earth.

According to researchers at the university’s molecular biology department, the worms typically have a two week life span here on earth, meaning that the worms will have produced somewhere around 28 generations, especially since the worms are no longer than the width of a grain of salt. Johnsen wants to use this to his advantage by looking at how the radiation affected and damaged the DNA of the worms, thus creating mutations in the multiple generations. He hopes to apply this to future human space travel, particularly with lengthy space travels that might involve years away from earth, and perhaps even childbirth. Interestingly, the worms have about 20,000 genes (about the same number as humans), with nearly half of those performing the same functions as human genes.

Johnsen states, “When you’re on the space station you can measure radiation with physical detectors but you really don’t know what the biological effects are on people that are staying on the space station for long periods of time. We want to get some understanding of the types of damages that space radiation causes and hope that we’ll be able to start working on some countermeasures to protect our astronauts when they’re going on these longer missions.” (Bains, 1) Of course, this type of understanding is only the tip of the iceberg, as space travel may one day be more profound than a prolonged stay at the International Space Station. In fact, NASA scientists want to learn as much as possible about space radiation, considering that they plan on landing a shuttle on Mars by 2035.

According to current data, one out of eight round-trip travelers to Mars would die from radiation poisoning, while the other seven would become seriously ill.

Source: Camille Bains, “Worms in Space.” Classified Extra. URL: (http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/Science/2007/06/15/pf-4263528.html)

Fermat’s Last Theorem

Sometimes the simplest of circumstances can lead to monumental stumbling blocks. Ask anyone who works in the repair business; they’ll have at least one story of how a five-minute problem ballooned into three hours of work. The same goes for delivery drivers, doctors, plumbers…and mathematicians. A prime example of this would be Pierre de Fermat, a 17th century number theorist who, perhaps inadvertently, created a mathematical conundrum that stood as one of the great unsolved problems of the field for 350 years.

Fermat, who was actually a lawyer (his mathematical pursuits were apparently something he did on the side), had some interesting theories on how best to pursue his research. During his lifetime, he only published one paper, and that was done anonymously. It was in the interest of keeping Fermat’s research from vanishing into obscurity that prompted his son Samuel to compile all of his letters and notes, and here is where the fun begins. In his father’s copy of Arithmetica by Diophantes, Samuel found a handwritten note in one of the book’s margins, stating that the equation

xn + yn = zn

does not have a non-zero integer solution for x, y, and z when n is greater than 2. This note, which was jotted down somewhere between 1630 and 1637, became known as Fermat’s Last Theorem. To further add mystery, Fermat further noted below the Theorem’s statement that he had “discovered a truly remarkable proof which this margin is too small to contain.” Unfortunately, none of his other notes or papers contained this proof, or even a hint of it. When Fermat died in 1665, there was still no trace of this “remarkable proof.”

Over the next 350 years, many mathematicians had a go at cracking this deceptively simple-seeming problem. While special cases for n=3 and n=4 were discovered, nobody had yet made a proof for the general case which stood up, despite the sheer number of stellar mathematical minds which had focused on the problem, including Leonhard Euler, Sophie Germain and Lejeune Dirichlet. Despite the fame that attached to the problem (and the prize money that was offered by various agencies to successfully solve it), it stood unresolved. (Note: for an excellent breakdown of the history of Fermat’s Last Theorem, visit http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/HistTopics/Fermat’s_last_theorem.html.)

Then, in 1986, it was announced that a connection between an earlier conjecture known as the Taniyama-Shimura-Weil conjecture and Fermat’s theorem had been proven, which piqued the interest of British mathematician Andrew Wiles. Wiles, who had been interested in FLT since childhood, realized that by proving the Taniyama-Shimura conjecture, which concerned elliptical curves and the properties of the space which they inhabited, he could also construct a proof of FLT. For the next seven years, Wiles worked on FLT in secret, fearing any news of his efforts would draw attention and distract him from the problem at hand.

Finally, while working at Princeton in 1993, Wiles was able to complete a proof of the Taniyama-Shimura conjecture for an entire class of curves, which covered those mentioned in FLT. Although the FLT proof was actually a corollary of his main work, it quickly garnered more attention. Announced in June 1993, it made headlines in the press and waves in the mathematical community, particularly in October 1993, when Wiles announced that he had found a flaw in his work. For the next year, he worked in collaboration with another mathematician, Richard Taylor, to repair the flaw and validate the original argument, and in October 1994, was able to do so. (An interview with Andrew Wiles done for NOVA can be found at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/proof/wiles.html.)

Notably, the proof was approximately 150 pages long, and of such complexity that it took many months to fully validate. Due to the complexity of the proof and the aspects of different mathematical fields that it touches, it is commonly believed that Fermat did not have a working proof for his theorem, but only discovered this after making his famous notation. Unlike his last theorem, this is a conjecture that will most likely never be proven one way or the other.

Top 50 Projects for Science Fairs in 2017

Science is exciting and the opportunity to show off what you’ve learned only comes once a year. Here are the top 50 science experiments to impress those judges.

1.) Volcanoes.

This science experiment has been done many times but never fails to receive good grades, even if there’s a mess. In fact, if there’s no mess, the grade is likely to be much lower.

2.) Mice experiments.

3.) The solar system

Set up to rotate, the solar system is classic as a science project but it’s been done so many times, you will have a hard time finding a unique way to do it for top marks.

4.) Mold projects.

5.) Biology projects.

6.) Gravity experiments.

Projects that demonstrate one of the law of gravity are another classic that goes over well. Avoid dropping two objects from a ledge and calling it good. It’s been done too many times.

7.) Behavioral projects.

8.) Growth Projects.

9.) Making an electric current.

This is a science project that wins top marks when done correctly and there are many online manuals that will show you exactly how to do it.

10.) Making a battery.

11.) Magnetic projects.

12.) Chemical projects.

Be careful with these projects for science and use them to create reactions and effects that change color and smoke. Always a crowd pleaser.

13.) Electrical projects.

14.) DNA projects.

15.) Alternative fuels projects.

16.) Alternative energies projects.

17.) Create an engine.

18.) Trash reduction projects.

Perfect as a science project, this is also good for the environment and may earn you national or world awards in conservation and inventions.

19.) Any Recycling experiment.

20.) Solar projects, especially those which show plant growth.

21.) Projects with Wind, like creating an electric generating windmill.

22.) Water projects, such as a wave machine.

23.) Making a go-cart.

24.) Making a small car.

More complicated, this science project is for more advanced fairs and contests and will require help from teachers that may be against the rules. Check first.

25.) Make an airplane that flies.

26.) Make a boat that sails.

27.) Decay projects.

Studying how trash decays is something governments spend a lot of money and time on each year. Find a way to make it degrade faster.

28.) Evolution projects.

29.) Erosion studies.

30.) Nature comparisons.

31.) Pollution effects studies.

32.) Worm and ant farms.

33.) Insect colony construction and management.

34.) Lifestyle and phycology projects.

People are always interested in learning what makes us tick. Great as a science project. Compare how the traits of your family have evolved or changed over the generations.

35.) Humidity and air pressure experiments.

36.) Make a rain gauge.

37.) Make a wind gauge.

38.) Sound projects.

39.) Reflective projects.

40.) Making a machine.

The more it can do, the more complex it is, the better marks it will get. Try creating something remotely controlled that is useful around your home.

41.) Breeding and hybrid projects.

43.) Quality, worth studies, comparisons.

44.) Disaster simulation.

Try setting up a small model of an earthquake that causes a tsunami. Be as realistic as possible but still respectful of past and future tragedies.

45.) Northern lights, solar radiation studies.

46.) Speed of sound and light projects.

47.) Astronomy projects.

48.) Make a lightbulb come on.

49.) Archeology projects.

50.) Radioactivity experiments. Another project that should be done carefully.

The best science project is the one that allows you to express your passions. Choose by that standard and you’ll do well.

Older Men Marrying Far Younger Women

An email I got tonight got me thinking. So I made a phone call to my Mom, and that got me thinking even more. For the most part, I think age is just a number. But when it comes to love and marriage? I don’t know.

When I was 12 we had a girl living with us, her name was *Patti, she was 20. She was no raving beauty, more on the mousy side, but the sweetest girl you’d ever meet. There was a friend of the family that was around quite a bit, he was older even than my parents, he was 53 and his name was *Dan. He was one smooth talking cowboy! He could convince you that rain was not wet!

Dan became very interested in Patti and asked her out, as a friend. They went out to the movies, they went and played tennis, went to dinner. I’ll never forget the day Dan came in and announced he and Patti were getting married. Everyone was shocked. Mom took Patti aside and asked if she realized what being married to a man old enough to be her grandfather was going to be like. Patti didn’t care, she was convinced she was in love.

So they married then moved to California. Through the years, you could tell Patti was getting more and more unhappy. They still did a lot of things together. But after the “glow” began to diminish, she began to realize things, things like, in his 50’s he was a bit set in his ways, he liked to do things older people enjoy, which, at first was great, but it got boring really quick.

The prime of her life was still coming while his had already been and gone. During her early 30’s she started having to really take care of him, he was in his 60’s, when she should’ve been out enjoying the hell out of life, she was nursing him. When she reached her 40’s the nursing schedule became even heavier. He was in his 70’s. He died when she hit her 50’s and he his 80’s. She had grown to almost hate him because he stole her life from her, with a few smooth talking words. She resented him, and thinking back on it. She realized, it wasn’t him she fell in love with, it was the way he told her what he knew she wanted to hear.

Even 10-15 years isn’t a bad age gap, but 33 years would steal a woman’s prime of her life from her. Mom faxed me some old letters she’d kept from Patti tonight. These letters began in the beginning years of their married life. By the end of the first year, you can tell that Patti was beginning to see what a difference there was in their ages. While she was ready to go out and do something in the afternoon, he wanted a nap. The sex was good, of course, he was a very experienced man, and apparently, very well…uh…built. But it didn’t take her long to realize that sex wasn’t everything. She grew restless for people her own age, but she’d married him and she took her vows seriously.She spent her years pretty much just taking care of him.

Yes, they had friends, some older, some younger. But it had become embarrassing to her because people always thought she was his daughter or granddaughter. Then when they found out they were husband and wife, it made people uncomfortable so they didn’t hang around.

When the passion wore off, she quickly realized what a mistake she’d made. Yes, she loved him, but at the same time resented him and the seeds of hating him for taking her youth, were beginning to form. When he passed away, she was a little sad, but more happy that she could finally begin living her own life at the age of 50. She had basically missed her 20’s 30’s and 40’s.

So I don’t know…10-15 years, that’s alright, not too big a deal, but 20-30 years is a whole one or even two generations different. Especially when you are only in your 20’s. Even though she may be convinced she’ll love him forever, you have to wonder how long it will actually take before the seeds of resentment take hold, then the hatred. And I would think that sentencing a woman that’s convinced she’s in love with a man 30 years older than herself, would fall under Cruel and Unusual Punishment.

Of course, I could be wrong, you do see these young women hanging all over all these rich old men! lol…of course…in that situation there’s an ulterior motive, and she’s hoping he’s got one foot in the grave and another on a banana peel.

In my 20’s I always though anyone over 30-35 looked ancient! I can’t imagine thinking I was in love with someone my grandpa’s age!

I don’t know. I won’t say it’s wrong or it’s right. That’s not my place, and my thoughts are based on one specific relationship that I have specific knowledge of. But…i’ve heard basically the same thing from women who got involved with a much older man. I would like to hear your opinion on this subject. Please drop me a line!

*The names in this story have been changed.

All the “Cool Kids” Are Doing It

My older brother and I often joke with each other and use simple cliche’s to get our points across to each other when we engage in friendly debates. “Don’t put the carriage before the horse” or “Don’t jump the gun”, he says to encourage me to take my time and be patient. “Take a chill pill” or “Woo-Sah”, I say to him to encourage him to calm down and relax.

“All the cool kids are doing it”, we both say to each other jokingly to encourage one another to do something we know we need to do, but lack the motivation.

However, this last cliche saying seems to have a little more social clout than other sayings.

It has been my observation in all social settings that there is power in numbers; whether consciously or subconsciously.

While enjoying an outing at the mall, shopping and having “Me time”, I always like to people-watch. I often just grab a pretzel and cop a squat on a bench in a high-traffic area where I know I’ll be able to observe some interesting social interactions. The other day as I was finishing my pretzel and lemonade I observed a thirteen, maybe fourteen-year old girl conversing with a friend she ran into while shopping (It still amazes me that in this day and age pre-teens and young teens are “dropped off” to roam the mall alone with only their same-aged friends who are equally as unexperienced as they are to accompany them).

The young girl seemed delighted by the encounter, hugging the friend as if she had not seen her in ages, when I’m sure they had no doubt seen each other hours ago while at school. As their conversation progressed the young lady who intially seemed delighted in bumping into the young lady suddenly was overcome with the worst case teenage angst I had ever seen. She began cursing, using her hands to make rude gestures and moving her neck in violent motions that would surely give her whiplash. Her entire demeanor and attitude towards the young lady had changed. What caused this sudden burst of attitude, rude language and behavior and disdain for her friend of five minutes ago? She had been joined by a group of four other teenaged girls.

These four other teenaged girls apparently disliked the young lady and had no problem whatsoever making quite a spectacle of themselves as they displayed just how much they disliked her. The young girl’s delighted demeanor was immediately altered by her group of friends.

It was clear this was not the first time this young lady had acted this way. She displayed no remorse as the other young lady walked away, the five girls laughing, pointing at her and snickering as she entered a nearby store. The girl who was obviously being picked on had clearly experienced this before as well, walking with her down and shaking it as though she knew that if those other four girls had shown up this was exactly what was going to happen.

The power of numbers. It is scary how the influence of four teenagers can cause one teenager to completely change her opinion, attitude, demeanor and basically her personality.

The fact is this: “All the cool kids are doing it” is a phrase that will never be false.

The socially strange and scary thing is this: The group classified as the “cool kids” is no longer composed of what the “cool kid” group is usually composed of.

The “cool kid” group is no longer the kids with the best clothes, clearest skin, best hair and membership in the most extracurricular activities. The “cool kid” group is officially whatever group of individuals has formed an alliance based upon any combination of similarities in any combination of social or personal categories and have pledged allegiance to each other and agreed that they are their own definition of “cool”.

With these standards, the “cool kid” group could be three teenagers who all have asthma, like Ja Rule and manage to play the harmonica despite their handicap. The “cool kid” group is becoming more inclusive and with good reason. There is power in numbers.

Another cliche’ comes to mind when exploring the power in numbers notion: “Two heads are better than one”.

This cliche shows how the “cool kid” group is growing in popularity even more than ever before because children these days think it is easier to make decisions based on the thoughts of their friends as opposed to making decisions based upon their own thoughts. In the case with the five mean girls against the one girl, five heads are better than one. This formula allows the teenagers to easily transfer blame for bad decision making when confronted by parents or other authority figures. They use the knowledge of their own easily influenced personalities to shy away from responsibility and ownership of their actions.

Be careful, they’re smarter than they look. They just don’t want you to think so.

What is Turbidity?

I have always been interested in my local environment, but it water that captivated me. Water has intrigued me since I was a small child wading in murky streams and ponds, hunting for creatures. As I grew older, I was able to appreciate the water for something more than the organisms it harbored, but for its place in the ecosytem. I began asking myself questions concerning organisms and their environment. I became interested in turbidity.

The purpose of this experiment was to find the relationship between a water’s origin or condition and its turbidity level, which was measured in JTU (Jackson Turbidity Units). It was hypothesized that if the water sample had a high acid concentration, then the water would be less turbid because fewer organisms would be able to survive in such conditions. To briefly summarize, five water types were collected: tap, melted snow, pond, stream, and shaken tap. (One tap water sample remained in its original state, while the other was vigorously shaken for one minute). The samples were then analyzed using the Logger Pro turbidity sensor and a laptop computer. The mean for pond water was 132.81 JTU, 128.67 JTU for the shaken tap water,134.13 JTU for the melted snow,138.22 JTU for the stream, and 136.18 JTU for the tap. Larger numbers indicate more turbid water. The range of the readings was 14.55 JTU, which was between the stream water (upper extreme) and the shaken tap water (lower extreme). The readings were abnormally high, which was most likely due to the amount of precipitation or technicalities experienced with the equipment. The hypothesis was therefore not supported.

The purpose of this experiment was to find the effect of water type on turbidity. (Water type refers to the water’s origin or condition). This topic was chosen to test Virginia’s water quality and potability, as well as to explore the connections between biology, geology, and ecology.

Turbidity is the concentration of suspended organic or inorganic particles in a given water sample that prevent light from passing through (Random House College Dictionary: “turbidity”). (Alternative terms are “poor transparency”, “murky”, “contrast reduction “, “hazy”, “poor clarity”, and “lateral luminosity”). Factors that affect turbidity are the particle size, particle shape, refractive index and the wavelength of light . Being aware of the turbidity levels in local streams can assist residents when installing dishwashers and washing machines, monitoring the water quality, and when building and maintaining pools and spas (Turbidity).

There are numerous particles that thrive in water. Some examples of inorganic particles that may be in the samples are barium, copper, fluoride, nitrate, lead, quartz, feldspar, iron, silica, carbonates, aluminum. Algae, protozoans, and insect larvae are just a few of the myriad organic particles that may populate bodies of water (Turbidity). These particles are responsible for the water’s appearance, as well as transparency. For instance, sunlight is able to penetrate relatively clear ocean water 262 feet and less than 164 feet in hazy ocean water (Bobick and Balaban, 90).

The prominent contributors to turbid waters are phytoplankton. (Phytoplankton are microscopic organisms that conduct photosynthesis to obtain food). However, shoreline erosion, channelization, large schools of bottom-feeding fish occupying an area (carp, for example), floods, constant rainfall,bubbles, and pollution can increase turbidity, also (Turbidity).

However, human interaction plays a major role in turbidity, too. Humans depend on water for consumption, recreation, cleaning, irrigation, agriculture, and hydroelectric power. Soil erosion from croplands and construction sites, debris from commercial and residential activities, run-off from pools and sewage, logging, mining, (Turbidity), and pesticides used in farming and lawn care can cause water to be murkier (weta.org). Pets swimming in the water can stir up the contents of stream beds and leave parasites, which cause the turbidity levels to escalate (Turbidity).

Additionally, drinking water with a high turbidity level may be hazardous to one’s health because some of the particles creating a cloudy semblance may include bacteria, viruses, and protozoans, which can spread waterborne maladies (Turbidity). One example of harmful microbial life in streams are amebas (Dorling Kindersley Science Encyclopedia, 314).

Furthermore, acid rain depletes bodies of water of aquatic plants and animals, which decreases turbidity levels. Sensitive creatures disappear when pH levels fall to six. Macrophytes are pH- sensitive microorganisms that thrive in streams, ponds, lakes, and rivers. If the macrophyte population decreases, many animals will be left with no food source because they occupy a major link of the local food chain (Turbidity) Of course, bodies of water have natural acidity, but the organisms have adapted to it through evolution (Turbidity).

Finally, excess particle matter can reduce the depth of bays and lakes through erosion. The particles from layers and as a result, the body of water becomes shallow. This endangers animal habitat because branches can be crushed and may collapse on breeding grounds; rock shelters can be filled with soil so that animals are not able to live in the crevices; insect larvae are delicate and the weight of the sediments produced by erosion can easily kill them. Silt can also impair fish’s ability to breathe by damaging their gills (Turbidity).

The hypothesis was that if the water sample was derived from an area with a high acid concentration, then it would be more turbid because fewer organisms would be able to survive in such conditions. The independent variable was the type of water. The levels of the independent variable were pond water, stream water, melted snow, tap water, and shaken tap water. The dependent variable was turbidity and was measured in JTU (Jackson Turbidity Units). The constants included air temperature, water temperature, air pressure, and light exposure. The control for this experiment was information from a reference source, which stated that the tap waster should be the least turbid.

The following materials were gathered: five juice bottles of equivalent size (capacity did not matter, as long as all of the bottles were identical), one bottle of food coloring, five beakers, one roll of masking tape, one permanent marker, one laptop computer, one floppy disk, and one Logger Pro turbidity measuring kit. Each juice bottle was then labeled A, B, C, D, or E with the masking tape and permanent marker. Water was then derived from a local stream and poured into bottle A. Water from the tap was put in bottle B and food coloring was added. Then, snow collected from outside was placed in bottle C and was shaken to quicken the melting process. Bottle D was filled with tap water and bottle E with pond water. Then, the five beakers were labeled A, B, C, D, or E with the masking tape and permanent marker. Bottle A water was poured into beaker A, bottle D water into beaker D, and bottle E water into beaker E. Bottle B and bottle C water remained in their respective bottles. The laptop computer was then plugged in to the outlet in the wall and attached to the turbidity sensor. An empty tube was placed in the turbidity sensor and was calibrated, followed by the tube filled with water included in the kit. Water from beaker A was analyzed as described in the instructions enclosed in the kit. The results were saved to the floppy disk. The water in bottle B was shaken vigorously for one minute so that bubbles would form and was poured into beaker B. Water B was analyzed exactly as water A had been. Bottle C was placed over the heating system if it had not melted. If it had, then it was analyzed in the same manner as water A. Waters D and E were analyzed in the same fashion. Each water was analyzed a total of ten times.

The turbidity for stream water was 138.22 JTU, 128.67 JTU for shaken tap water, 134.13 JTU for the melted snow, 136.18 JTU for the tap water, and 132.81 JTU for the pond water. The greatest difference in JTU measurements was between the stream water and the shaken tap water. The range was 14.55. The hypothesis that if the water sample had a high acid concentration, then the water would be less turbid because fewer organisms would be able to survive in such conditions was not supported by the data.

The title of this experiment was the effect of water type on turbidity. The purpose of was to find the relationship between a water sample’s origin or condition on its turbidity level measured in JTU (Jackson Turbidity Units). The averages for stream water, shaken tap water, melted snow, tap water, and pond water were as follows, respectively: 138.22 JTU, 128.67 JTU,134.13 JTU,136.18 JTU, and 132.81 JTU. The range of the data was 14.55 JTU. It was hypothesized that if the water sample had a high acid concentration, then the water would be less turbid because fewer organisms would be able to survive in such conditions. The results did not support the hypothesis because due to previous experimentation, it was discovered that despite the fact that the stream, pond, and snow had higher pH levels than the shaken tap and tap water, their readings were within 15 units of each other, which did not accurately display the significant difference that should have occurred. In similar experiments, the results revealed that the pond and stream water contained larger amounts of inorganic and organic particles than the tap water. The other researchers’ results do not support the results of this experiment because the readings were lower in theirs. Perhaps the immense precipitation caused the contents of the stream and pond to be distributed throughout the bodies of water, leading to high readings. The tap water probably was highly concentrated with particles because the precipitation caused the particles in the local reservoir to be distributed throughout the pipe systems in Arlington county or simply because the pipe system connected to the sink that the samples were obtained from must be replaced. To produce results more correctly conveying the ascending order of turbidity levels in water types in future experiments, the water samples should be collected during a day closely representing average precipitation levels in the area. As an improvement to the experiment, the water samples should not be exposed to varied air pressure, light, or temperature changes because this could kill any living organisms in the sample, thus causing a lower turbidity level to be read by the turbidity sensor.


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Thompson, Gerald and Coldrey, Jennifer The Pond Cambridge: MIT Press, 1984.

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Turbidity http://www.ownrri.umn.edu/Wow/Under/Parameters/Turbidity.html.

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Turbidity. 25 Nov. 2002. Sigrist-photometer Ag. 7 Jan. 2003 http://www.photometer.com/En/Abc/Abc_118.htm.

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Turbidity. Urban Creeks Council Of California. 7 Jan. 2003


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